Programming Embedded Systems In C And C++ [free pdf]

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In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++. The motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph.D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were very helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing. Remembering his Ph.D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable and widely used. As well as C and Simula's influences, other languages also influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU, and ML. [HISOTORY OF C++ wikipedia]

TABLE OF CONTENT

What Is an Embedded System? 

Variations on the Theme ................................................................................. 4
C: The Least Common Denominator .............................................................. 9
A Few Words About Hardware ..................................................................... 11

2. Your First Embedded Program .......................................................... 13


Hello, World! .................................................................................................. 13
Das Blinkenlights ........................................................................................... 14
The Role of the Infinite Loop ........................................................................ 18

3. Compiling, Linking, and Locating ................................................... 19


The Build Process .......................................................................................... 19
Compiling ....................................................................................................... 21
Linking ............................................................................................................ 23
Locating .......................................................................................................... 25
Building das Blinkenlights ............................................................................. 27

4. Downloading and Debugging ........................................................... 30


When in ROM… ............................................................................................ 30
Remote Debuggers ......................................................................................... 32
Emulators ........................................................................................................ 35
Simulators and Other Tools ........................................................................... 37

5. Getting to Know the Hardware ......................................................... 40


Understand the Big Picture ........................................................................... 40
Examine the Landscape ................................................................................. 42
Learn How to Communicate ......................................................................... 47
Get to Know the Processor ........................................................................... 50
Study the External Peripherals ...................................................................... 53
Initialize the Hardware .................................................................................. 54

6. Memory ...................................................................................................... 57


Types of Memory ........................................................................................... 57
Memory Testing ............................................................................................. 61
Validating Memory Contents ......................................................................... 74
Working with Flash Memory ......................................................................... 79

7. Peripherals ................................................................................................. 84


Control and Status Registers .......................................................................... 84
The Device Driver Philosophy ...................................................................... 86
A Simple Timer Driver ................................................................................... 89
Das Blinkenlights, Revisited .......................................................................... 97

8. Operating Systems ................................................................................ 100


History and Purpose .................................................................................... 100
A Decent Embedded Operating System ..................................................... 101
Real-Time Characteristics ............................................................................. 119
Selection Process .......................................................................................... 122

9. Putting It All Together ......................................................................... 124


Application Overview .................................................................................. 124
Flashing the LED .......................................................................................... 126
Printing “Hello, World!” ............................................................................... 130
Working with Serial Ports ............................................................................ 131
The Zilog 85230 Serial Controller ............................................................... 137

10. Optimizing Your Code ........................................................................ 139


Increasing Code Efficiency .......................................................................... 139
Decreasing Code Size .................................................................................. 143
Reducing Memory Usage ............................................................................. 144
Limiting the Impact of C++ .......................................................................... 146

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