Exam Cram CompTIA A+ [FREE PDF DOWNLOAD]

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Exam Cram CompTIA A+ [FREE PDF DOWNLOAD]
Table of Content

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Troubleshooting ................................ 9
The Six-Step A+ Troubleshooting Process ..................... 10
Step 1: Identify the Problem .......................... 10
Step 2: Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (Question the
Obvious) ....................................... 11
Step 3: Test the Theory to Determine Cause ............... 12

Step 4: Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and
Implement the Solution ............................ 12

Step 5: Verify Full System Functionality and, If
Applicable, Implement Preventative Measures ............. 13
Step 6: Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes .......... 13
Cram Quiz ...................................... 14
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 15
Troubleshooting Examples and PC Tools ..................... 16
Troubleshooting Example 1—Basic: Display Issue ........... 16
Troubleshooting Example 2—Intermediate: Power Issue ....... 18
Troubleshooting Example 3—Advanced: Wireless Issue ....... 19
PC Tools ....................................... 23
More Troubleshooting Tidbits ........................ 24
Cram Quiz ...................................... 26
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 27

CHAPTER 2

Motherboards ............................................ 29
Motherboard Components and Form Factors ................... 30
Motherboard Components ........................... 30
Form Factors ..................................... 40
Cram Quiz ...................................... 44
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 45
The BIOS/UEFI ...................................... 46
BIOS, CMOS, and the Lithium Battery .................. 46
The POST ...................................... 47

Accessing and Configuring the BIOS .................... 48
Flashing the BIOS ................................. 51
Cram Quiz ...................................... 53
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 54
Installing and Troubleshooting Motherboards .................. 55
Installing Motherboards ............................. 55
Troubleshooting Motherboards ........................ 56
Cram Quiz ...................................... 62
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 63
CHAPTER 3
The CPU ................................................ 65
CPU 101 .....................
CompTIA A+ 220-901 and 220-902 Exam Cram

CHAPTER 5

Power .................................................. 121
Understanding and Testing Power .......................... 122
Testing an AC Outlet with a Receptacle Tester ............. 123
Testing an AC Outlet with a Multimeter .................. 124
Cram Quiz ...................................... 126
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 126
Power Devices ........................................ 127
Power Strips ..................................... 128
Surge Protectors .................................. 128
Uninterruptible Power Supplies ........................ 129
Cram Quiz ...................................... 132
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 133
Power Supplies ........................................ 134
Planning Which Power Supply to Use ................... 134
Installing the Power Supply ........................... 140
Troubleshooting Power Supply Issues .................... 142
Heating and Cooling ............................... 146
Cram Quiz ...................................... 147
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 149

CHAPTER 6

Storage ................................................. 151
Hard Drives .......................................... 152
Hard Disk Drives .................................. 152
Solid-State Drives ................................. 153
SATA .......................................... 154
Hard Drive Specifications ............................ 156
Installing Hard Drives .............................. 157
Preventative Maintenance and Troubleshooting Hard Drives.... 158
Network Attached Storage............................ 162
Cram Quiz ...................................... 163
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 164
RAID .............................................. 166
Cram Quiz ...................................... 168
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 168

Optical Storage Media................................... 169
Compact Disc (CD) ................................ 169
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) .......................... 170
Blu-ray ......................................... 173
Cram Quiz ...................................... 175
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 176
Solid-State Storage Media ................................ 178
USB Flash Drives .................................. 178
Secure Digital Cards ................................ 181
CompactFlash Cards................................ 183
Cram Quiz ...................................... 184
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 185

CHAPTER 7

Mobile Device Hardware .................................... 187
Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Visible Laptop
Components ........................................ 188
Laptop 101 ...................................... 188
Input Devices .................................... 189
Video .......................................... 195
Audio .......................................... 199
Optical Drives .................................... 200
Fans ........................................... 200
Power .......................................... 201
Expansion Devices ................................. 204
Communications .................................. 206
Cram Quiz ...................................... 208
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 210
Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Internal Laptop
Components ........................................ 212
Hard Drives ..................................... 212
Memory ........................................ 213
System Board and CPU ............................. 216
Cram Quiz ...................................... 218
Cram Exam Answers................................ 219
Understanding Tablet and Smartphone Hardware ............... 220
Mobile Hardware Examples ........................... 220

CompTIA A+ 220-901 and 220-902 Exam Cram
Hardware Differences Between Tablets/Smartphones
and Laptops..................................... 223
Tablet/Smartphone Ports and Accessories ................. 225
Other Types of Mobile Devices and Wearable Technology ..... 228
Cram Quiz ...................................... 231
Cram Exam Answers................................ 232

CHAPTER 8

Installing and Upgrading Windows ............................. 233
Installing and Upgrading to Windows 8 ...................... 234
Windows 8 Editions ................................ 234
Windows 8 Minimum Requirements and Compatibility ....... 235
Windows 8 Installation Methods ....................... 236
Upgrading to Windows 8 ............................ 237
Cram Quiz ...................................... 239
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 240
Installing and Upgrading to Windows 7 ...................... 241
Windows 7 Editions ................................ 241
Windows 7 Minimum Requirements and Compatibility ....... 242
Windows 7 Installation Methods ....................... 243
Upgrading to Windows 7 ............................ 246
Verifying and Troubleshooting Windows 7 Installations ....... 248
Cram Quiz ...................................... 251
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 253
Installing Windows Vista ................................. 254
Windows Vista Editions ............................. 254
Windows Vista Minimum Requirements and Compatibility ..... 255
Windows Vista Installation Methods..................... 256
Verifying and Troubleshooting Windows Vista Installations .... 256
Cram Quiz ...................................... 259
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 260

CHAPTER 9

Configuring Windows....................................... 261
Windows User Interfaces................................. 262
Windows Components .............................. 262
Windows Applications .............................. 268

Administrative Tools and the MMC ..................... 273
Cram Quiz ...................................... 276
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 277
System Tools and Utilities ................................ 278
Managing Devices ................................. 278
Operating System Optimization ........................ 281
User Migrations and Customizations .................... 289
Advanced System Tools ............................. 292
Cram Quiz ...................................... 300
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 302
Files, File Systems, and Drives ............................. 303
Working with Files and File Systems .................... 303
Managing Drives .................................. 309
Cram Quiz ...................................... 316
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 317

Maintaining Windows....................................... 319
Updating Windows..................................... 320
Windows Update .................................. 320
Service Packs ..................................... 322
Cram Quiz ...................................... 325
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 326
Maintaining Hard Drives ................................. 327
Hard Drive Utilities ................................ 327
Backups ........................................ 330
Creating Restore Points ............................. 333
Shadow Copy .................................... 334
Cram Quiz ...................................... 337
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 339

CHAPTER 11

Troubleshooting Windows ................................... 341
Repair Environments and Boot Errors........................ 342
Windows Recovery Environments ...................... 342
Boot Errors ...................................... 349
Cram Quiz ...................................... 352

Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 353
Windows Tools and Errors ............................... 354
Troubleshooting Within Windows ...................... 354
Stop Errors ...................................... 362
Improper and Spontaneous Shutdowns ................... 364
Additional Windows Errors and Error Reporting ............ 365
Restoring Windows ................................ 366
Cram Quiz ...................................... 368
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 369
Command-Line Tools .................................. 371
Windows Command Prompt .......................... 371
Recovery Command Prompt .......................... 376
Cram Quiz ...................................... 378
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 379
CHAPTER 12
Video and Audio .......................................... 381
The Video Subsystem ................................... 382
Video Cards ..................................... 382
Video Displays .................................... 391
Video Settings and Software .......................... 394
Cram Quiz ...................................... 403
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 405
The Audio Subsystem ................................... 406
Sound Cards ..................................... 406
Installing a Sound Card and Speakers .................... 408
Troubleshooting Audio Problems ....................... 409
Cram Quiz ...................................... 412
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 413

CHAPTER 13

Peripherals and Custom Computing ............................ 415
Input/Output, Input Devices, and Peripherals .................. 416
I/O Ports ....................................... 416
Input, Output, and Hybrid Devices ..................... 422
Cram Quiz ...................................... 426
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 428

Custom PC Configurations ............................... 429
Audio/Video Editing Workstation ...................... 429
CAD/CAM Workstation ............................. 430
Virtualization Workstation ........................... 430
Thin Client ...................................... 432
Standard Thick Client .............................. 434
Home Server PC .................................. 435
Home Theater PC (HTPC) .......................... 436
Gaming PC ...................................... 437
Cram Quiz ...................................... 439
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 440

CHAPTER 14

Printers ................................................. 441
Printer Types and Technologies ............................ 442
Types of Printers .................................. 442
Local Versus Network Printers ........................ 447
Cram Quiz ...................................... 449
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 451
Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Printers............. 452
Printer Installation and Drivers ........................ 452
Configuring Printers................................ 453
Virtual Printing ................................... 460
Troubleshooting Printers ............................ 463
Cram Quiz ...................................... 467
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 469

CHAPTER 15

Computer Networking Part I.................................. 471
Types of Networks, Network Devices, and Cloud Technology ....... 472
Network Types ................................... 472
Network Devices .................................. 473
Cloud Technology and Server Roles ..................... 476
Cram Quiz ...................................... 482
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 483
Cables, Connectors, and Tools ............................. 485
Cable Types and Connectors .......................... 485

Cabling Tools .................................... 491
Cram Quiz ...................................... 495
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 496
TCP/IP............................................. 497
Configuring IPv4 .................................. 497
IPv4 Classes and CIDR .............................. 500
Configuring IPv6 .................................. 503
TCP/IP Protocols and Their Ports ...................... 505
Cram Quiz ...................................... 511
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 51

Desktop Operating System Security ......................... 577
User Accounts .................................... 577
File Security ..................................... 584
Encryption ...................................... 589
Windows Firewall ................................. 592
Cram Quiz ...................................... 594
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 595
SOHO Security ....................................... 597
Changing Default Passwords .......................... 597
Changing and Disabling the SSID ...................... 598
Configuring Wireless Encryption ....................... 598
Enabling MAC Filtering ............................. 600
Disabling WPS ................................... 600
Assigning Static IP Addresses .......................... 601
Disabling Physical Ports ............................. 601
A Final Word on SOHO Routers ....................... 601
Cram Quiz ...................................... 602
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 603

CHAPTER 18

Android, iOS, OS X, and Linux ................................ 605
Android and iOS Basics .................................. 606
Open-Source and Closed-Source Operating Systems ......... 606
Obtaining Applications .............................. 608
Screen Configurations .............................. 609
Virtual Assistants .................................. 611
GPS and Geotracking ............................... 611
Microsoft Mobile Operating Systems .................... 612
Cram Quiz ...................................... 614
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 615
Android/iOS Networking and Synchronization ................. 616
Cellular Radio Technologies .......................... 616
Wi-Fi Network Connectivity .......................... 619
Wi-Fi Troubleshooting.............................. 621
Bluetooth Configuration ............................. 623
Bluetooth Troubleshooting ........................... 625
E-Mail Configurations .............................. 625

Troubleshooting E-mail Connections .................... 627
Synchronizing Android and iOS-based Devices to a PC ....... 628
Synchronizing Other Devices ......................... 630
Cram Quiz ...................................... 631
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 632
Android/iOS Security and Additional Troubleshooting ............ 634
Stolen and Lost Devices ............................. 634
Compromised and Damaged Devices .................... 636
Stopping Applications ............................... 638
Initiating Resets ................................... 640
Additional Mobile Device Troubleshooting ................ 642
Cram Quiz ...................................... 646
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 647
OS X and Linux ....................................... 648
OS X .......................................... 648
Linux .......................................... 654
Cram Quiz ...................................... 662
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 663
CHAPTER 19
Safety, Procedures, and Professionalism ........................ 665
Safety .............................................. 666
Electrical Safety ................................... 666
Electrical Fire Safety................................ 667
ESD ........................................... 668
Physical Safety .................................... 671
Cram Quiz ...................................... 673
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 673
Procedures and Environmental Controls ..................... 674
Temperature, Humidity, and Air ....................... 674
EMI and RFI ..................................... 675
MSDS and Disposal ................................ 675
Incident Response and Documentation ................... 677
CompTIA A+ Troubleshooting Theory .................. 678
Cram Quiz ...................................... 680
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 681
Professionalism and Communication Skills .................... 682
Cram Quiz ...................................... 685
Cram Quiz Answers ................................ 686
CHAPTER 20
Taking the Real Exams ..................................... 687
Getting Ready and the Exam Preparation Checklist .............. 688
Tips for Taking the Real Exam ............................ 692
General Practices for Taking Exams ..................... 693
Smart Methods for Difficult Questions ................... 695
Wrapping Up the Exam ............................. 696
Beyond the CompTIA A+ Certification ....................... 696
PRACTICE EXAM 1
CompTIA A+ 220-901 ....................................... 699
Exam Questions ....................................... 700
Answers at a Glance .................................... 717
PRACTICE EXAM 2
CompTIA A+ 220-902 ....................................... 719
Exam Questions ....................................... 720
Answers at a Glance .................................... 737
APPENDIX A
Real-World Scenarios ...................................... 739
220-901 Scenarios...................................... 740
Scenario 1: Design a CAD Workstation Computer ........... 740
Scenario 2: Select the Best Components for Three Computers ... 741
Scenario 3: Identify Video Ports ........................ 742
Scenario 4: Configure Wi-Fi on a SOHO Router ............ 742
Scenario 5: Identify Various Wireless Ranges............... 743
Scenario 6: Identify IP Addresses ....................... 744
220-902 Scenarios...................................... 745
Scenario 7: Troubleshoot an IP Issue with Ipconfig .......... 745
Scenario 8: Sharing and Mapping in the Command Prompt ..... 746
Scenario 9: Troubleshooting a System with Msconfig ......... 747
Scenario 10: Fixing a Computer That Won’t Boot ........... 747

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